What is 12-3-30? It’s not an important date in gym history from almost 100 years ago. It’s a social media-based fitness phenomenon. Simply, it requires using a treadmill set at a specific incline, moving at a specific speed, for a specific length of time.
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It’s an incredibly straightforward approach that has “fitfluencers” and followers sweating buckets as they supposedly lose weight using the workout protocol. However, fitness trends can be hit or miss. And, given the general state of social media and its low barrier of entry, there are usually more misses than hits.
It’s time to review the pros and cons of the 12-3-30 workout to find out if it’s a temporary trend or if it could become a time-tested routine.
The 12-3-30 Workout
When it comes to fitness, numbers can be relatively arbitrary. The 12-3-30 routine can work, but if you set the incline to 11% and the speed to 3.2 mph, and you only do the workout for 27 minutes, it would not make much difference and you could expect nearly identical results.
So while specific numbers can be useful for getting trends to catch on, and they can be a convenient way to keep things standard for everyone in the gym, there is no particular magic about “12-3-30.”
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Then what’s the merit of the 12-3-30 program? Well, the steep incline and relatively quick pace make it challenging enough, and it’s long enough in duration, that you’ll almost certainly break a sweat and burn a fair amount of calories.
The significant incline adds a level of intensity that translates well to improving your hiking and endurance abilities. The speed is fast enough to push most people, but generally not “too fast” to trigger major fatigue which might cause you to end the workout early. The 30-minute time limit encourages you to see the workout through, while also getting an appreciable number of steps.
As beneficial as it could be, it’s important to remember that you can and should tailor it to your individual needs, which will be explained in-depth later in the article. The exact programming numbers are less important than simply getting through a tough cardio workout for an effective length of time.
Workouts like 12-3-30 can be great in aiding fat loss. You will see lots of progress photos online crediting the workout plan. The fundamental mechanism for fat loss is always the same for every individual — achieving a consistent caloric deficit. If you perform a daily cardio workout that burns a lot of extra calories, it can naturally be great for fat loss.
However, not everybody is guaranteed to lose fat with this plan. For example, if you are inconsistent with training, you might not actually be burning that many calories each week. The same applies if you “water down” the workout too much. While the particular “12-3-30” numbers don’t matter that much, if you devolve the workout to something closer to 6-2-15, it’s not even close to the same workout anymore. Remember, the workout needs to be challenging and it needs to be done for a decent amount of time.
Furthermore, fat loss isn’t always certain because, while you might burn plenty of calories during a 12-3-30 workout, it still might not be enough to make up for the calories you’re eating. Regardless of your training program, your nutrition needs to be designed for fat loss if you want to see results.
There is a massive overeating problem when it comes to the classic Western diet and trendy social media workouts are not going to solve that. (1) As cliché as it may sound, you can’t outrun or, in this case, out-incline-walk your diet if you’re taking in too many calories.
The main drawback of 12-3-30 is, frankly, that it is simply a cardio workout. Some fitness influencers actually go so far as to claim the treadmill routine is “all you have to do” to lose weight. But it’s not.
This brings up a massive issue. Not only do many people face an overconsumption issue when it comes to calories, but there is also a lack of strength training in many populations. Gone are the days where lifting weights is only for bodybuilders and powerlifters.
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Countless anecdotal evidence (from long before 12-3-30 existed) along with abundant scientific research all demonstrate the same thing: optimal fat loss and significant body composition change requires strength training. (2)
Strength training is the only way to provide the stimulus your body needs to retain lean muscle mass. This is important because, when you’re in a caloric deficit, you are deliberately burning more energy than your body is taking in. This makes your body want to “eat away” your tissues — muscle and stored body fat alike — to fuel its basic function.
If your body doesn’t have the ability to hang on to muscle tissue, which is stimulated through strength training, you will lose a combination of body fat and muscle tissue. This is why some people don’t end up looking “lean” or defined when they lose weight. They simply look “skinnier,” saggy, or even frail. Furthermore, losing muscle reduces your metabolism and makes your bones weaker. (3)(4)
While seeing the number on the scale go down is often a good thing, you want that reduced body weight to be primarily from body fat, not lean muscle. Muscle retention requires a foundation of strength training. This is especially true for leaner and more trained individuals who are more prone to muscle loss, due to beginning with relatively lower body fat levels.
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If you’re currently at a relatively heavier body weight or if you’re new to fitness, you might be able to get away with solely doing 12-3-30 without muscle loss… for a little while. Eventually, though, everybody benefits from strength training.
This is not so much a knock on the 12-3-30 workout plan, as much as it’s a comment on how it’s being “marketed” or widely promoted. For the best overall and long-term results, using 12-3-30 as your only form of exercise is not an effective plan.
The look that you are likely after will require you to lose fat while retaining precious muscle tissue, so let’s talk about how to get there without throwing the baby out with the bathwater.
The textbook approach to 12-3-30 can be a productive cardio workout. It can help you burn some calories while improving general cardiovascular health and endurance. Another plus is that it’s not so intense that you can’t watch YouTube videos or pay attention to a podcast during the workout. Those kinds of strategic distractions can make a half-hour go by quickly.
However, it’s important to remember that you don’t need to stick exactly to the 12-3-30 prescription. That incline, speed, and duration could be pretty hard for beginners, so start slightly lower, slower, and/or shorter before gradually working your way up.
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And please, for the love of all things good, do not make the 12-3-30 workout the foundation of your exercise plan. Many fitness trends are cardio-based, which will have some merit, but no matter how trendy they might seem, they don’t trump the foundations of strength training and proper nutrition.
So, while 12-3-30 can be simple enough for almost anyone to start, it’s ultimately a supplemental training method. The base of a fat loss plan should revolve around weight training and a good diet.
This means you should be lifting weights three to five days per week before worrying about tacking on any trendy cardio workouts. But, once you do add a plan like 12-3-30 (or something like 8-2-25, to get started), you might boost fat loss because it can burn quite a bit of calories for some people.
If you’re not finding measurable success on your plan after a few weeks, it’s OK. It simply means you need to reassess your nutrition. It is a reminder that strength training triggers muscle retention, but nutrition triggers your fat loss, and any clever cardio programming will always be, at best, an accessory to all that.
And if you simply don’t have time for 12-3-30, that’s OK, too. Despite the viral popularity, it’s not the only option for cardio training. You can do a “condensed” version for just 15 minutes with a higher incline or faster speed to make up for abbreviated time. Or you can try a different approach like a high intensity interval workout.
The Final Verdict
12-3-30 isn’t necessarily a fad. Using a treadmill-based workout that’s a challenging intensity for a significant duration can be effective. But, like all trends, it needs context. It may seem intriguing and tempting to hear about losing fat with a simple, straightforward workout, especially as you see already fit influencers following the plan.
It’s appealing to think that fat loss is as simple as getting on a machine for X incline at Y speed for Z time and results will just roll in. But the physiological foundations remain the same.
No matter your chosen workout, you need to be in a caloric deficit by managing your nutrition and, to ensure that deficit strips away primarily body fat while retaining lean muscle, you will need to strength train consistently.
If 12-3-30 has caught your eye, consider it as one part of an overall fat loss program. Don’t hang your fat loss hopes on one workout just because it has a high follower count on socials.
Kopp W. (2019). How Western Diet And Lifestyle Drive The Pandemic Of Obesity And Civilization Diseases. Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy, 12, 2221–2236. https://doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S216791
Bellicha, A., van Baak, M. A., Battista, F., Beaulieu, K., Blundell, J. E., Busetto, L., Carraça, E. V., Dicker, D., Encantado, J., Ermolao, A., Farpour-Lambert, N., Pramono, A., Woodward, E., & Oppert, J. M. (2021). Effect of exercise training on weight loss, body composition changes, and weight maintenance in adults with overweight or obesity: An overview of 12 systematic reviews and 149 studies. Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 22 Suppl 4(Suppl 4), e13256. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13256
Kim, G., & Kim, J. H. (2020). Impact of Skeletal Muscle Mass on Metabolic Health. Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea), 35(1), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3803/EnM.2020.35.1.1
Bettis, T., Kim, B. J., & Hamrick, M. W. (2018). Impact of muscle atrophy on bone metabolism and bone strength: implications for muscle-bone crosstalk with aging and disuse. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA, 29(8), 1713–1720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-018-4570-1
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